Ways that Police Deal with People: The Theory and Practice of Process-Based Policing

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Using data from systematic social observations of police-citizen encounters, the statistical analyses demonstrate the importance of understanding the dynamics of police citizen encounters. The findings suggest how to enhance police legitimacy and improve the experiences of police citizen interactions. This book will appeal to criminal justice scholars and practitioners.


“This examination has been missing in the literature. Few writers could have managed to piece together and add relevantly needed content to Tyler’s work on process-based policing and procedural justice.” – Prof. Denise Nation, Winston-Salem State University

“. . . a compelling and thoughtful examination of the theoretical arguments and empirical findings concerning the factors and effects of procedurally fair police behaviors.” – Prof. Yuning Wu, Wayne State University

Table of Contents

List of Tables
Foreword by Dr. James Frank
Chapter 1
Introduction to Process-Based Policing
Process-Based Policing and Implications
Theoretical Explanations and Mixed Findings
From Perceived Procedural Justice to Objectively Fair Procedures
Evaluation of the Fair Procedures
Overview of Current Study
Chapter 2
Understanding Police-Citizen Encounters
The Interactive Nature of Police Citizen Encounters
Empirical Research on Citizen Behavior During Interactions
Systematic Social Observations of Police Citizen Encounters
Chapter 3
Theoretical Frameworks of Police-Citizen Encounters
Theoretical Frameworks
Social Interactionist Theory of Coercive Behavior
Theories of Procedural Justice
Chapter 4
Explaining Procedurally Fair Behavior by the Police
Correlates of Procedurally Fair Behavior by the police
Research Questions
Chapter 5
The Effects of Process-Based Policing
Research Questions
Chapter 6
Discussion and Conclusion
Understanding Citizen Disrespect and Noncompliance
Theoretical and Practical Implications
Suggestions for Future Research
I Ride Instrument
II Activity Instrument
III Encounter Instrument
IV Citizen Instrument
V Logistic Regression of Citizen
Noncompliance During Encounters (Block-Entry Analysis)
VI Logistic Regression of Citizen Disrespect During Encounters (Block-Entry Analysis)

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