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“Wood offers an interesting, innovative, if not slightly unconventional, methodology for language teaching [he] presents and studies a new approach he calls Photo Communication in which the second language classroom rejects traditional textbooks and instead relies upon the student’s own personal history as revealed by photos. The students’ photos then become both the material and the method for language study.”
-Dr. Carolyn Gascoigne,
University of Nebraska, Omaha


“Professor Wood’s research into Photo Communication for TESOL meticulously details the evolution of the approach from its embryonic concept through to a fully grown methodology…The style of the research is engaging as it develops organically in response to student feedback…Instead of leaving everything in the EFL class up to publishers and their texts, his method seizes back the sense of self-determination lacking in most TESOL classes.”
-Professor Jan Stewart,
Chikushi Jogakuen University

“Wood’s focus on stimulating spontaneous communication by using student’s photos is innovative, original and dynamic…This study is a critical introduction to what he called Photo Communication.”
-Freek Olaf de Groot,
City University Graduate School,
Hong Kong

“Professor Wood combines aspects of quantitative and qualitative feedback analysis to present his research data. He demonstrates how CAF (Complexity Accuracy and Fluency) measurements can be combined with longitudinal analyses of linguistic development to pinpoint significant changes in subjects’ language ability…The essence of the approach’s potential seems to be its power to motivate interaction, and the way in which linguistic proficiency can increase through the concerted communicative impetus that it clearly stimulates.”
-Doctor Atsushi Tanamachi,
Seinan Gakuin University, Japan

Table of Contents

Foreword by Freek Olaf de Groot
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Literature Review and Methodology

2.1 The Problem
2.2 Proposed Solution and Hypotheses
2.3 The Style of Learning of the Approach
2.3.1 Dogme
2.3.2 Situated Learning
2.3.3 Active Learning
2.4 Measuring the Approach’s Effect
2.4.1 In-class and School-wide Feedback
2.4.2 Complexity, Accuracy, Fluency
2.4.3 Language Proficiency Test Trends
2.5 The Visual Aspect of the Approach
2.6 Methodology
2.6.1 Participants
2.6.2 Materials
2.6.3 Procedures, Design Details, Analyses
Chapter 3: Who Needs TEFL Textbooks?
3.1 Japan’s Educational Background
3.2 Teaching Material Design Principles
3.3 A Communicative Course Example
3.4 A Model Class Syllabus
3.5 Some Content Examples
3.6 Student Feedback Questionnaire
Chapter 4: Situated Travel Snaps
4.1 The Psychology of Travel
4.2 Still Images
4.3 Why Travel English Photos?
4.4 Course Design Considerations
4.5 Control Language
4.6 Groupings and Warm Up
4.7 The Second Stage
4.8 Question Guidelines
4.9 Format Development
4.10 Language Differences and Quizzes
4.11 Conclusion to Chapter Four
Chapter 5: The Wider Angle: Beyond the Text
5.1 Photo Communication’s Evolvement
5.2 The Original Research
5.3 The Follow-up Research
5.4 The Survey Questions
5.5 Questionnaire Response Changes
5.6 Comments on Changes
5.7 Future Implications
5.8 Student Comment Examples
Chapter 6: A Close-up: Going Digital
6.1 Seminar Procedure
6.2 Interaction Examples
6.3 Succeeding Survey Conditions
6.4 Comments on the Results
6.5 Student Comment Examples
6.6 Approach’s Relevance to Seminars
6.7 Most Recent Class Evaluations
6.8 Class Size Considerations
6.9 Pairs, Groups and Whole Class
6.10 Interaction Example
6.11 Conclusion to Chapter Six
Chapter 7 A Face Book: Photos for Writing
7.1 Overall Aim of Using Photos
7.2 The Research Background to Date
7.3 Photo Writing’s Aim and Background
7.4 Central Writing Course Features
7.5 Questionnaire Method
7.6 Central Writing Course Feature Data
7.7 Writing Class Student’s Comments
7.8 Results General Comments
7.9 Results Detailed Comments
7.10 Writing Class Formal Evaluations
7.11 Future Implications and Directions
Chapter 8: Bigger Picture
8.1 Dogme’s Development
8.2 Text or Non-text TEFL Conversation?
8.3 Talking Pictures Methodology Review
8.4 Spoken Sample and Survey
8.5 Photo Essay Writing – Overview
8.6 Semester 2 Course Features Review
8.7 Semester 2 Writing Aims
8.8 Photo Essays and Diary Samples
8.9 Semester 2 Writing Class Feedback
8.10 School-wide Evaluations
8.11 Conclusion to Chapter Eight
Chapter 9: Talking Picture and Beyond
9.1 Communication Challenges
9.2 Talking Pictures’ Structure and Content
9.3 Talking Pictures’ Interactions
9.4 Talking Pictures’ Analyses
9.5 Comments on Talking Pictures
9.6 Written Communication Challenges
9.7 Writing Class Structure and Content
9.8 Written Interaction Set Up
9.9 Written Question Analysis
9.10 Photo Essay Analysis
9.11 Diary Analysis
9.12 Written Communication Comments
9.13.1 In-Class Conversation Comments
9.13.2 In-Class Writing Feedback
9.14.1 Formal Conversation Feedback
9.14.2 Formal Writing Feedback
9.15 Related School-wide Feedback
9.16 Conclusion to Chapter Nine
Chapter 10: Photo Communication Development
10.1 Photos’ Communicative Significance
10.2 Lingering Communication Challenges
10.3 Photo Communication Method Review
10.4 Written Communication Samples
10.5 Still Images Approach’s Potential
10.6 TOEIC Data Implications
10.7 A Final Word and Future Directions
Appendix I
ETS TOEIC Descriptors
Appendix II
Comment Examples from Chapters
Comment Examples 7.7
Comment Examples 8.8
Comment Examples 9.13.1
Comment Examples 9.13.2
Comment Examples 9.14.2

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