SUN YAT-SEN AND THE WEST: Western Influence on His Life and Thought

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This book examines the impact of Western ideas and Christianity on the development of Sun Yat-sen’s political thought and revolutionary activities. Regrettably Sun was not able to create a democratic Western type of government in unified China, something for which he struggled throughout all his life.


“. . . beyond its historical value, this work is quite relevant to the myriad problems facing the Chinese people today, a full century after the empire came to an end. Dr. Sun was extraordinarily prescient, and his analyses of the problems China would face as it grew and modernized have proven to be quite accurate. The relevance to developments in today’s China is obvious and striking, and provides much fodder for speculation on the future.” – Prof Nae-hyun Yoon, Dankook University

“. . . a welcome addition to our historical understanding of Sun Yat-sen and his place in the Chinese political and economic thoughts.” – Prof. Dongyoun Hwang, Soka University of America

“Most of the existing studies on the relation between Sun and the USA are restrictedly focused on Hawaii, where he received school education . . . in contrast, this book emphasizes [influence of] the activities of Americans in California such as Homer Lea, C. B. Boothe, W. W. Allen . . .” – Prof. Yongtae Yu, Seoul National University

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: The Revive China Society and Its Key Members, 1894-1895
Hakka-Taiping-Triad Connections Within the Revive China Society
Hawaii Chapter of the Revive China Society
Yokohama Chapter of the Revive China Society
Hong Kong Chapter of the Revive China Society
Chapter 2: Christians and the Chinese Revolution, 1885-1925
Sun Yat-sen’s Christian Friends and Chinese Revolution
Sun Yat-sen’s Christian Faith and Revolutionary Thought
Chapter 3: Ho Kai (He Qi), 1859-1914
Ho Kai’s Professional Activities in Hong Kong
Ho Kai’s Political Involvements with Sun Yat-sen
Ho Kai’s Ideological Influence on Sun Yat-sen
The Right of People and the Power of Government
Internationalism (Datongzhuyi)
Sun Yat-sen’s Theory of Easy Action and Difficult Knowledge
Chapter 4: Zheng Guanying, 1841-1920
Zheng Guanying’s Personal Relations with Sun Yat-sen
Zheng Guanying’s Ideological Relations with Sun Yat-sen
Ethnocentric Approaches to China’s Modernization
People’s Livelihood and Agriculture
Trade, Communication, and Transportation for the People’s Livelihood
The West and Democracy
Chapter 5: Wang Tao, 1828-1897
Wang Tao, from Self-Strengthening to Institutional Reform
Sun Yat-sen, From Institutional Reform to Violent Revolution
Relationship Between Wang Tao and Sun Yat-sen
China’s Wealth and Power
Utilization and Training of Talented Men
Agriculture and Sericulture
Trade and Commerce
Chapter 6: Sun Yat-sen’s Early Writings
Overview of Foreign Influences in Sun Yat-sen’s Thought
Sun Yat-sen’s Memorial to Li Hongzhang (1894)
The Declarations of the Revive China Society in Hawaii and Hong Kong (1894-95)
The True Solution of the Chinese Question (1904)
The Declaration of the Alliance Society Slogans (1905)
The Revolutionary Program (1906)
Chapter 7: Proposals for Reform
The Primer of Democracy (1917)
The Political Doctrine of Sun Yat-sen (1919)
The International Development of China (1922)
Chapter 8: The Three Principles of the People (1924)
3 Nationalism
The People’s Livelihood
American Adventurism in China Chapter 9: American Militarists, Chinese Reform and Revolution, 1898-1912
American Adventurism in China American Adventurism in China
American Adventurism in China Homer Lea’s Military Ventures with Chinese Reformers
American Adventurism in China The Chinese Imperial Reform Army and the Western Military Academy
American Adventurism in China The Chinese Imperial Army under State and Federal Investigations
American Adventurism in China Homer Lea and the Chinese Revolution
American Adventurism in China Chapter 10: American Financiers, Chinese Reform and Revolution, 1898-1912
American Adventurism in China American Financial Involvements with Chinese Reformists
American Adventurism in China Aborted American Financing for Chinese Reformists
American Adventurism in China Foiled American Financing for Chinese Revolutionaries
American Adventurism in China Chapter 11: Sun Yat-sen and China’s Modernization, 1986-2006
American Adventurism in China Press Coverage
American Adventurism in China Publication of Books and Articles
American Adventurism in China Scholarly Meetings
American Adventurism in China Construction or Renovation of Memorial Museums, Parks, and Halls
American Adventurism in China Exhibitions and Issuances of Commemorative Stamps and Coins
American Adventurism in China Motion Pictures and TV Programs
American Adventurism in China Memorial Gatherings
American Adventurism in China Promotion of International Understanding and Friendship
American Adventurism in China CONCLUSION
American Adventurism in China List of Abbreviations Used in the Notes
American Adventurism in China Notes
American Adventurism in China Bibliography
American Adventurism in China Index

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