Pioneers in Penology

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This two-volume work details the history of seminal penological thought and practice covering the period between 1557 and 1900. Based principally on primary source literature, the thirty-nine chapters of this anthology bring into sharp focus (1) the lives of the great European and American pioneering reformers in penology; (2) the most important pioneering experiments in prison and reformatory discipline; and (3) the histories and contributions of the major societies responsible for imparting impetus to prison reform in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The addition of endnotes and “Suggestions for Further Reading and Inquiry” sections following each chapter provides readers with a comprehensive and meticulously annotated collection of primary and secondary source materials from the rich history of penology. It is hoped that readers will be left with a just appreciation of the pioneers, institutions, and societies that constitute the knowledge base of modern penology, and that the period documents cited will inspire fresh scholarly inquiries that contribute to a more complete understanding and appreciation of the history of penological thought and practice.


“Criminal justice history is a field that has long been in its infancy. With the publication of Dr. Horton’s edition of period documents on penology, it has taken a great leap forward in methodological sophistication and scholarly achievement ... this work represents the very best in archival bibliographic research and scholarly documentary editing. As such, Dr. Horton’s book will long remain the definitive source for those who wish to understand the evolution of penological theory and practice between the 16th century and 1900.” - Dr. Herbert A. Johnson, Distinguished Professor of Law Emeritus, University of South Carolina

“Dr. Horton’s work provides researchers, students, and others interested in penology an opportunity to learn much about penology’s past and its clear relationship to the present and future. His work is must reading for serious penological scholars and should be required reading in both undergraduate and graduate penology courses.” – Dr. Thomas G. Blomberg, Dean and Sheldon, L. Messinger Professor of Criminology, Florida State University

Table of Contents

1 The London Bridewell (1557) and Elizabethan Houses of Correction
2 The Ergasteria of Amsterdam, Holland, known as the Rasphouse (1596) and Spinhouse (1597)
3 Filippo Franci (1625-1693) and the Hospice of San Filippo Neri, Florence, Italy (1653)
4 William Penn (1644-1718) and “The Great Law” (1682)
5 Pope Clement XI (1649-1721) and the Hospice of San Michele, Rome (1703)
6 Jean Jacques Philippe Vilain XIV (1712-1777) and the Maison de Force, Great Britain (1775)
7 John Howard (1726-1790)
8 Sir Thomas Beevor (1726-1814) and the Penitentiary House at Wymondham, Norfolk, England (1785)
9 The Panopticon, or Inspection House (1787)
10 The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons (1787)
11 The Walnut Street Gaol, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1789)
12 William Bradford (1755-1795)
13 Thomas Eddy (1758-1827)
14 Newgate, the New York State Penitentiary, New York City (1797)
15 James Neild (1744-1814)
16 Sir Samuel Romilly (1757-1818)
17 Elizabeth Gurney Fry (1780-1845), the “Female Howard”
18 Sarah Martin (1791-1843)
19 Sir James Mackintosh (1765-1832)
20 Edward Livingston (1764-1836)
21 The New York State Prison at Auburn, and the Silent and Congregate System of Prison Discipline (1824)
22 The American Houses of Refuge for Juvenile Offenders
23 John Haviland (1792-1852)
24 Eastern State Peniteniary at Cherry Hill, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (1829), and the Silent and Separate System of Prison Discipline
25 Amos Pilsbury (1805-1873) the World’s “Model Prison-Keeper”
26 Johann Heinrich Wichern (1808-1881) and the Rauhen-Haus, Horn, Germany (1883)
27 Manuel Montesinos (1790-1862) and the Correctional Prison of Saint Agustin, Valencia, Spain (1834)
28 Alexander Machonchie (1787-1860) and the Norfolk Island Experiment (1840-1844)
29 John Augustus (1785-1859) and the Origin of Probation (1841)
30 The International Penitentiary Congresses (1846,1847, 1857)
31 Georg Michael von Obermaier (1789-1885)
32 Mary Carpenter (1807-1877)
33 The Ticket-of-Leave (1853) and the Origins of Parole Conditional Pardons and Transportation to British Colonial North America
34 Sir Walter Frederick Crofton (1815-1897) and the Irish Convert System (1853)
35 Enoch Cobb Wines (1806-1879) and the National Prison Association (1870)
36 Zebulon Reed Brockway (1827-1920) and the New York State Reformatory at Elmira (1876)
37 The Indeterminate Sentence (1877)
38 A Chronological Conspectus of Penological Thought and Practice (1557-1900)

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