Local Government Migrant Policies in Tokyo, Japan: National Exclusions, Local Inclusion

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The book documents the movements of migrant populations through Tokyo. It reveals how the local government makes policies that impact the practice of multicultural co-existence.

The author draws on extensive in depth interviews with government officials and his own 4-year tenure as the International Relations Coordinator in a local government in Tokyo. His findings demonstrate that in contemporary Japan, the integration of foreigners is being led by local governments. There are many factors contributing to immigration into Japan. With Japan facing a labor shortage this book examines policies that help to build a multi-cultural approach towards migrant populations looking for work.


“This book is both timely and a welcome addition to knowledge on the increasingly important topic of immigration and Japan. Nagy provides a comprehensive and in-depth investigation of how local governments are dealing with issues of increasing immigrant numbers and the concomitant social change that ensues.”

-Prof. David Chapman,
University of South Australia

“This work lives up in every way to Nagy’s reputation for excellence.”

-Prof. M.G. Sheftall,
Shizuoka University
“The greatest contribution of this book lies in the author’s multifaceted examination of how internal forces in the local government have shaped the meaning of multicultural coexistence and how local governments are responding dynamically to the pressures of globalization.”

-Prof. Soo im Lee,
Ryukoko University

Table of Contents

List of Figures
List of Tables
Foreword by David Chapman i
Preface v
Acknowledgments ix
Introduction 1
Transformative Era of Globalisation and Global Relevance 1
Objectives 12
Global and Japanese Perspectives on the Consequences of
Increasing Numbers of Migrants 15
Relevance of Tokyo Metropolitan Area/Tokyo Metropolis 20
Relevance of Local Governments 24
Pillars of Internationalisation: International Exchange,
International Cooperation and Foreigner Assistance 26
Previous Studies on Internationalisation and Multicultural
Coexistence 32
Contributions 53
Methodology and Book Structure 55

Part 1 - History and Theory of Multicultural Coexistence 59
Introduction to Part One 59
Chapter 1. From Cultural Exchange to Multicultural
Coexistence: Development from Cultural Exchange to
Multicultural Coexistence in Japan Since 1945 63
Introduction 63
Era of Cultural Exchange 65
Era of International Cooperation 87
Era of Multicultural Coexistence: Development of Tabunka
Ky?se i/ Multicultural Coexistence 102
Conclusion 138

Chapter 2. Searching for the Meaning of Multicultural
Coexistence through Ideas 143
Introduction 143
Multicultural Coexistence through the Prism of Liberal
Democratic Multiculturalism 151
Liberal Democratic Multiculturalism Critique of Multicultural
Coexistence 160
Sociological Interpretations of Multiculturalism and
Multicultural Coexistence 171
Dimensions of Multicultural Coexistence Model 193
Defining Multicultural Coexistence, Shades of Multicultural
Coexistence 202
Multicultural Coexistence: Paths Towards a more Inclusive,
Pluralistic Society 255
Conclusion 267

Part 2 - Practices of Multicultural Coexistence by Local
Governments in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area 271
Introduction of Part Two 271

Chapter 3. Framework of Analysis: Indicators of
Multicultural Coexistence 273
Introduction 273
Indicators of Multicultural Coexistence Practices 276
Conclusion 286

Chapter 4. Multicultural Coexistence Practices in Adachi
Ward 291
Introduction 291
Demographic Information of Adachi Ward 293
Analysis of Adachi Ward’s Internationalisation Policy 304
Multicultural Coexistence Practices in Adachi Ward 316
Conclusion 353

Chapter 5. Multicultural Coexistence Practices in
Shinjuku Ward 359
Introduction 359
Demographic Information in Shinjuku Ward 360
Analysis of Shinjuku Ward’s Internationalisation Policy 374
Multicultural Coexistence Practices in Shinjuku Ward 384
Conclusion 412

Chapter 6. Multicultural Coexistence Practices in
Tachikawa City 417
Introduction 417
Demographic Information on Tachikawa City 417
Analysis of Tachikawa City’s Internationalisation Policy 424
Multicultural Coexistence Practices in Tachikawa City 434
Conclusion 458

Conclusion 465
Interpretations of Multicultural Coexistence Vary between
Scholars, Ministries, and Local Governments 476
Questions for Future Research 495

Appendix A: Ministry of Internal Affairs and
Communications’ Multicultural Coexistence Plan 501

Appendix B: Questionnaire distributed to local governments
in Tokyo Metropolitan Area 509

Appendix C: Second questionnaire distributed to Adachi
Ward, Shinjuku Ward and Tachikawa City 525

Appendix D: Multicultural Coexistence Budgets in Adachi
Ward, Shinjuku Ward and Tachikawa City 531

Appendix E: Comprehensive chart of internationalisation
and multicultural coexistence information in Adachi
Ward, Shinjuku Ward and Tachikawa City 533

Bibliography 543

Index 585

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