How the Academic Support of Parents, Teachers, and Peers Contributes to a Student's Achievement

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This book investigates student achievement in Hong Kong, using empirical quantitative study testing the hypothesis that Hong Kong students’ self-perceived academic support is related to their achievement. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that the students’ perceived levels of parental, teacher, and peer support were all indirectly related to their academic achievement mediated by their own perceived academic engagement. In addition, both perceived parental support and perceived teacher support were also directly related to academic achievement, demonstrating that student achievement was a combined outcome of both direct and indirect effects of perceived support from parents and teachers. Comparatively, however, perceived teacher support made the greatest contribution to student achievement. Perceived peer support had the smallest, nonetheless significant, indirect relationship to academic achievement. This study also revealed important gender differences as well as grade-level differences in the relationships of perceived academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to academic achievement directly and indirectly through perceived academic engagement.


“One of the most important goals in educational research is to understand and improve students’ learning. In order to accomplish this, researchers have long tried to understand factors that have influenced and are related to students’ learning. In this book, Jennifer Chen takes advantage of recent advances in quantitative data analysis techniques to investigate the relationship of academic support from parents, teachers, and peers to students’ academic engagement and achievement.” – Professor Jinfa Cai, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Delaware

“This work is valuable from several perspectives. It will be a helpful model for the application of high-quality research methods. It provides a gentle and helpful introduction to the cultural context of the Hong Kong Schools. It provides interesting findings that indicate the importance of teachers in influencing their students.” – Dr. Terrence Tivnan, Director, Human Development and Psychology, Harvard Graduate School of Education

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