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The Role of the Solar and Lunar Calendars in the Redaction of the Psalms
Chyutin, Michael

Description

Sectarianism in the Jewish religion increased during the Second Temple period. One of the prominent manifestations of their differences was the establishment of a different religious calendar for each sect, causing a ‘war of the calendars.’ The first part of this book provides a comprehensive survey of the various calendars found in the ancient world. The second part discusses the redaction of the Book of Psalms in this light. It argues that the redactional Book of Psalms is according to the lunar calendar, while that of the “Psalms Scroll” (11QPs) is according to the solar calendar as practiced at Qumran. Variations in the redaction of the Masoretic, the Septuagint and the other five identified Psalter Scrolls found in Qumran are interpreted as corresponding with the variations in the lunar and solar calendars.

Reviews

“This is a well-written and engaging academic monograph. The author has done an excellent job explaining a difficult subject…. Chyutin’s study suggest that the early debates over the solar and lunar calendar were as instrumental in shaping early Judaism as religious disputes concerning purity…. Chyutin’s book is remarkable for its breadth of coverage and its original scholarly examination of ancient calendars. It is essential reading for anyone interested in calendars in antiquity, the development of ancient Judaism, and the Dead Sea Scrolls. This book should be in all research libraries.” – Dr. Kenneth Atkinson, University of Northern Iowa

“… an innovative, thought-provoking contribution to the issue of the annual calendars used in Israel during the biblical period, and particularly during the Second Temple period….Chyutin succeeds in demonstrating how the rationale of the lunar calendar underlies the editing of the collection in the Masoretic version of the Psalter, whereas the editing of the Qumranic version is influenced by the solar calendar. Chyutin’s original theory sheds new light on the Book of Psalms, and his discussion deepens generally the understanding of Jewish sectarianism throughout the generations.” – Prof Yairah amit, Tel Aviv University

“There can be no doubt that the publication of a revised and expanded English translation of Chyutin’s book… is bound to become a major factor of the discussion of the matter on hand.” – Prof. Shemeryahu Talmon, Hebrew University

Table of Contents

Table of contents: Preface; Foreword Part 1: The War of the Calendars in the Second Temple Period 1. Sectarianism and the Calendar in the Temple Periods 2. The Archaic Calendar 3. The Egyptian Solar Calendar 4. The Mesopotamian and the Greek Lunar Calendars 5. Seasonal Calendars 6. A Canaanite Calendar – The Gezer Calendar 7. The Calendar of the Qumran Sect 8. Te Calendar of the Book of Jubilees 9. The Calendar in Enoch A 10. The Calendar in Enoch B 11. The Scriptural Solar Calendar in the First Temple Period 12. The Jewish Holy Days and the Solar Calendar 13. The Controversy of the Sectarian Solar Calendars 14. The Babylonian/Hebrew Lunar Calendar in the Second Temple Period 15. The Lunar Calendar in the Temples at Mount Gerizim and Elephantine 16. The Dual Calendar in the Scriptures 17. Historical Feasts and Fast Days in the Second Temple Period 18. The War of the Calendars and the Story of the Deluge 19. The War of the Calendars – Summary Part 2: The Calendrical Redaction of the Book of Psalms 20. Variant Redactions of the Book of Psalms 21. The Redaction of the Traditional Book of Psalms 22. The Divine Names and the Redaction of the Book of Psalms 23. The Redaction of the Books of Psalms as a Solar Calendar 24. The Tradition of Calendrical Redaction of Songs 25. The Psalms Scroll from Qumran, 11Q5 26. The Apocryphal Psalms 27. The Redaction of the Daily Psalms According to the Solar Calendar 28. The Solar A Redaction of the Qumran Psalms Scroll (11Q5) 29. The Solar B Redaction of the Psalms 30. The Solar C and the Archaic Calendar Redactions of the Psalms 31. The Lunar Calendar and the Redaction of the Traditional Book of Psalms 32. The Daily psalms in the Traditional Lunar Redaction 33. The Sabbath Psalms in the Traditional Lunar Redaction 34. Psalms for the Months in the Traditional Lunar Redaction 35. Psalms for Assembly Days, Atonement Day, and an Intercalary Day 36. The Lunar Redaction of the Psalms in the Septuagint Translation 37. Numerical Groupings in the Variant Redactions 38. Stages in the Development of the Redaction of the Book of Psalms Appendix A: The Feasts of Megillat Ta’anit Appendix B: Number Mysticism and the Redaction of Books Bibliography; Index

ISBN10:  0-7734-6931-1   ISBN13:  978-0-7734-6931-0    Pages:  368    Year:  2002   

Series: Studies in Bible and Early Christianity Number: 54

Subject Area: Patristics, Early Christianity, Ancient Near Eastern Studies - Religion 

Imprint: Edwin Mellen Press

USA List Price: $149.95 UK List Price: £ 99.95  

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